Changsha Academician’s “One Table Dish”①丨Monument——Recalling Academician Yuan Longping, the “Father of Hybrid Rice”

 

  monument

  ——Recalling Academician Yuan Longping, “Father of Hybrid Rice”

  Star Online May 22 News According to (Cao Hui, Ouyang Qian, reporter from Hunan Daily, New Hunan Client)

  【Editor’s note】

A bowl of fragrant white rice, plus Hunan people’s favorite – stir-fried pork with chili, caught fresh crucian carp, carp stew, and then drizzled with fragrant vegetable oil. After your meal, drink a cup of hot tea and taste the citrus. A table of dishes that ordinary people can enjoy comfortably is inseparable from the contribution of the Changsha Academician “Tian Tuan”.

They are “Father of Hybrid Rice” Academician Yuan Longping, “Rape Academician” Guan Chunyun, “Pig Raising Academician” Yin Yulong, “Pepper Academician” Zou Xuehua, “Black Tea” Academician Liu Zhonghua, “Aquaculture Academician” Liu Shaojun, “Citrus Academician” Academician “Shan Yang”, and “Weeding Academician” Bo Lianyang, who manages the vegetable garden.

From today to May 29, Hunan Daily Changsha Branch and Longping Hi-Tech Park plan to launch a series of large-scale integrated media reports on “Changsha Academician ‘One Table Dish'”, which will focus on a table of dishes that are closely related to the common people, and explore academicians and delicious food. The story of delicacies shows the scientific research achievements made by academicians in the field of agriculture in Changsha over the years.

The first article focuses on rice. I would like to mourn the first anniversary of the death of Academician Yuan Longping.

  【Academician Business Card】

Yuan Longping (September 7, 1930 – May 22, 2021), academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, known as “the father of hybrid rice in the world”. A close friend of the Communist Party of China, an outstanding representative of people without party affiliation, and a recipient of the “Medal of the Republic”. In 1995, he was elected as an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering.

Yuan Longping devoted his whole life to the research, application and promotion of hybrid rice technology. He invented the “three-line method” indica hybrid rice, successfully developed the “two-line method” hybrid rice, and created a super hybrid rice technology system. Outstanding contributions to scientific development and world food supply. He has successively won the “National Special Invention Award”, “The First Highest Science and Technology Award”, the United Nations “Science Award”, “Wolf Award”, “World Food Award” and other awards. At 13:07 on May 22, 2021, Yuan Longping passed away in Changsha at the age of 91.

  【menu】

Xiangliangyou 900 rice (super hybrid rice).

Features: large ears and many grains, high seed setting rate, no major diseases, and the yield has set a new world record.

  【text】

It is another year of small fullness, the early rice has ears, and the grains are gradually full. Thousands of miles of rice fields, fragrant for thousands of miles, erected an immortal monument for Yuan Longping.

  1. Seeking rice

“You can’t grow rice on books or computers. Only in the experimental field can the rice I hope grow.” – Yuan Longping

(The picture comes from the Internet)

Follow your footsteps, and the golden rice field will give you page-by-page answers. The rice fields can’t speak, but write your mark from “can’t eat enough” to “eat enough” to “eat well”.

“I am determined to solve the problem of increasing grain production and prevent the people from starving.” That was the oath you made when you graduated from the genetics and breeding major of Southwest Agricultural College in 1953.

You take this vow as a lifelong pursuit.

During the three-year difficult period from 1959 to 1961, a nationwide food shortage and famine broke out. The experience of seeing starvation on the road deeply hurt you, and you immersed yourself in accelerating research on food production. Experiment, fail; misunderstand, move on. Just like migratory birds chasing the sun, you go south to Guangdong, Hainan Island, westward to Yunnan and other places, and tirelessly repeat one test after another in test fields.

Do you still remember? In July 1961, you encountered the first natural hybrid rice in the vast sea of ​​rice. You are ecstatic and embark on the road of finding “rice”.

With the scorching sun on your head, the mud on your feet, and your hunched back, you found 6 male sterile plants among the hundreds of thousands of rice ears, and started the first domestic research on male sterility of rice.

Unexpectedly, since 1966, when the “Cultural Revolution” storm swept through, you were listed as the object of criticism, and the rice seedlings that you worked hard to cultivate were destroyed. It was a dark and lonely night. You and your students found a precious seedling in a stinky ditch overgrown with weeds.

Fortunately, you have received a letter from the State Science and Technology Commission confirming your research. The fledgling hybrid rice experiment turned the corner.

May 18, 1968, early morning. You find that more than 700 seedlings of sterile material that you have worked hard on in the experimental field have been artificially destroyed. You are shivering all over, you are full of grief and anger. In those days, you were running around and frantically searching. Finally on day 4, in a well, you found 5 seedlings that survived the disaster.

But then, 3,000 hybridization experiments were carried out with more than 1,000 varieties, but none of them could produce a 100% sterile line, and the experiment ended in failure.

Too many twists and turns have already trained you to be reinforced, and you never want to give up. You set your sights on wild rice again, and decided to go to the southernmost island of Hainan to look for rice varieties in distant places, hoping to find a new way to study sterile lines.

You are like a migratory bird, flying to the paddy fields in Hainan every winter to breed and breed. You and your team call this breeding method of racing against the seasons and chasing the seasons as “Southern Breeding”.

In 1970, there was a breakthrough in the search: team member Li Bihu found a natural male sterile wild rice!

That is a wild rice that is more precious than gold. You observe carefully, pick rice flower samples for inspection, and finally determine its identity. This is a wild rice aborted by iodine abortive pollen.

“Then call it wild defeat.” You name it.

“Wild defeat” is here, and hunger has been defeated all the way from now on!

  2. Rice breeding

“I always feel dissatisfied. To engage in scientific research, we must constantly want to climb the peak.” – Yuan Longping

(The picture comes from the Internet)

“Wild defeat” has no reproductive capacity.

To achieve crossbreeding, it is necessary to find three rice plants, one is a male sterile line, one is a maintainer line (can be selfed), and one is a male sterile restorer line (can be selfed). The “three-line hybrid rice” technology was born.

At the beginning of 1971, the State Science and Technology Commission and the Ministry of Agriculture decided to organize a nationwide collaborative research on hybrid rice, which was listed as a national key scientific research project. Your research escalates into national action.

In 1974, you bred my country’s first strong dominant hybrid “Nanyou No. 2”. The yield per mu has broken through the kilogram mark, which has made a qualitative leap in the yield per mu of grain.

Since 1976, hybrid rice has been widely promoted across the country. Your name is burnt in the land of China. So far, the annual increase in food production due to the cultivation of hybrid rice can feed 80 million more people.

Some people ask, your “three-line method” can let you “eat” for a lifetime, why do you need to work so hard?

“I’m always dissatisfied. To do scientific research, you have to constantly want to climb the peak.” Your answer was neither general nor exaggerated. You said it and did it.

You proposed: In the future, the hybrid rice method must be changed from the “three-line” method to the “two-line” method, and then to the “one-line” method, and the procedure will become more and more simple.

“Three-line” hybrid rice needs to be bred into male sterile line, male sterile maintenance line, and male sterile restorer line, so that “three lines” are matched; Under the influence of temperature, the fertility changes, and it is respectively sterile or fertile, so the maintainer line in the “three-line” method can be omitted.

From “three series” to “two series”, the problem of yield per mu is solved.

Compared with the twists and turns of the “three series”, the “two series” is more tragic and solemn.

In the past 20 years, the “two-line” seed production lacked stability, and the output went up and down. For a time, various places dismounted “two lines” to produce seeds. Only the Hunan team persisted.

You never have the thought of giving up. You find your old partner Luo Xiaohe and let him use temperature as a breakthrough in the combination of many photosensitive sterile lines.

23.5℃! The key to the “two lines” infertility has been found, and you have overcome the difficulty again. The success of the “two-line method” in 1995 increased my country’s rice yield per mu by about 5% to 10%.

It’s you who leave hunger far behind.

In 1997, you started climbing “Super Rice” again. Your portrait of “super rice”: high canopy, short panicle, large panicle, and high lodging resistance.

There are thousands of waves of rice buds, and rice flowers can’t hold back their joy. They tell you one good news one after another: the yield per mu is 800 kilograms, 900 kilograms, and exceeds 1000 kilograms.

You didn’t stop. Just like a spinning top, it spins whole-heartedly and pounces on the ground without any regrets.

You said that our country has a large population and limited arable land. Originally, there was only one way to increase the yield per unit, but now I want to take another way, using the saline-alkali land to grow food.

You have embarked on the road of breeding salt-tolerant hybrid rice.

You give us “calculation”: There are more than one billion mu of saline-alkali land in the country. If we can develop to 100 million mu, the minimum yield per mu is 300 kg, and we can produce 30 billion kg of grain a year, and feed more than 80 million to 100 million people. .

In 2020, the new crown pneumonia epidemic broke out. Is the global food crisis coming? You think ahead for the people: call for the restoration of double-cropping rice, and start the research on hybrid rice with a double-cropping yield of 1,500 kilograms per mu.

1500 kg of research, you selected the pilot in Hengnan County. To increase double-cropping rice from 1200 kg to 1500 kg, good fields, good seeds, good opportunities and good skills are indispensable. “Competitors” Zaodao Zhuliangyou 168 and Wandao Sanyou 1.

Sanyou No. 1 is a third-generation hybrid rice. Compared with the first generation of classic hybrid rice (three-line hybrid rice) and the second generation (two-line hybrid rice), Sanyou No. 1 is simpler in seed production and reproduction, and requires more fertilizer and water. easy going”.

Wandao Sanyou No. 1 did not disappoint you, nor did Hunan. Experiments in 2020 and 2021, and the results of on-the-spot yield measurement were announced. The average yield per mu of double-cropping rice reached 1,530.7 kg and 1,603.91 kg, respectively, exceeding the target.

In the past two years, the international and domestic situation has confirmed your keen judgment: the continuous epidemic, the sudden war, the superposition of various factors, and many countries restrict or prohibit the export of food.

It is you, standing on the bow of the ship, looking out, issuing warnings, making judgments, and letting the Chinese “hold their jobs in jail”.

You said that you have two dreams, one is the dream of enjoying the cool under the grass, and the other is the dream of hybrid rice covering the world. Your dreams represent the highest pursuit of high-yield scientific and technological research and industrialization promotion. Your dream has been sown in more than 60 countries and regions around the world, and the overseas planting area of ​​hybrid rice has now reached 7 million hectares.

  3. Protect “rice”

“Learn to survive, learn to care, and be a heroic Chinese” – Yuan Longping

You care about young people. A young person asks you what is the secret of success. You give 8 words: knowledge, sweat, inspiration, opportunity.

You are a role model for young people. You are an academic leader, rigorous, down-to-earth and innovative. What you have left for future generations is the figure of dedication and hard work, the fighting spirit that becomes more and more courageous, and the endless exploration. You say you are happy, what you do is meaningful, and all the busyness is worth it.

You are a “literary and artistic youth” with a wide range of interests. You love swimming, share swimming skills with young people, and are enthusiastic about holding swimming competitions; you like cars, from the early motorcycles to the cars behind you, you are chasing trendy models.

You are always careful about others. When you are away on a business trip, you are occasionally accompanied by an assistant and never let the assistant take the luggage; your colleagues around you have to go to school, you always urge you to strictly supervise and demand, “Read well, and be motivated, I support it”; even the barber shop you often go to, You are all enthusiastic about the inscription, I hope other people’s business will be better…

You are a romantic husband, you play the violin in your leisure time, your wife Deng plays the electronic piano, and the naughty kitten named Xiaohua is beside you; every anniversary or special day, you will prepare gifts for your wife in advance . You are the enlightened father of three sons majoring and career choices, never interfering, letting them fly.

As a scientist, you are far away from ordinary people, you are abstract. But you are also specific. From the little things you do to the people around you, so warm, so meticulous, so kind, isn’t this the respectable and lovely elders around us?

On May 22, 2021, you left us. On that day, Lushan was speechless, and Xiangshui was low. The rain fell like tears, and the tears were poured out like rain, and the whole star city was surging with a mournful melody.

On May 24, hundreds of thousands of people spontaneously saw you off. It mourns its pain, its sorrow for its pain, shakes the heavens and the earth.

They came from all directions, they brought their families along with them; they refused to leave in the rainy night, they kowtowed and laid flowers outside the funeral home. Their misses are like weeping; their gratitude is like resentment.

In fact, the tears of the common people are very precious and generous, depending on who they are. You have the people in your heart, and the people will shed their tears on you and give you their hearts.

You see, it is said that there are no monuments, but mountains and rivers are monuments. What is the use of keeping a name, people’s heart is a name!

(The picture comes from the Internet)

A year has passed, and the scene of thousands of people weeping and pulling the curtains like clouds has long since disappeared. Near the test field you are concerned about, the people built a bronze statue.

In the distance, there are continuous rice fields; near, there are flowers in full bloom. The thousands of words that spread across the mountains and plains are affectionate and solemn, like the distressed greetings from the elders of your hometown, and the sincere respect of countless researchers.

They said-they have never forgotten your dream of enjoying the shade under the rice field. The average yield of double-cropping rice is 1603.91 kg per mu, setting a new record; the cultivated “super rice with high temperature resistance” can also be stable at 40°C high temperature; On the saline-alkali land, the “Yuan Meng Project” is being drawn.

They said – your dream of planting hybrid rice all over the world, they have never forgotten, their high-yield rice can make hunger no longer anywhere in the world, and everyone in the world can eat it of white rice.

There are thousands of miles of fertile fields, and thousands of rice waves. If heaven has an appearance, in the fragrance of rice flowers, the sunken rice ears will welcome the harvest year.

  【Academician’s Message】

Classmates, you are a group of energetic and enthusiastic young people standing at the new starting point of your life. In the face of you who are lively, cheerful and high-spirited, I hope to communicate with you not as elders, but as friends. You are at the age of flowers, and it is the time to be full of dreams, but it is not enough to stop dreaming, I hope you will set up ideals and work hard to achieve them.

I say that I have always had two dreams: the first dream is the dream of enjoying the coolness under the grass, which is the dream of pursuing high yield of rice; the second dream is the dream of hybrid rice covering the world. I have always been working hard to make the dream come true. I hope to work with you to realize these two dreams together.

People often ask me what is the “secret” of success? In fact, there is no secret. My experience is the words “knowledge, sweat, inspiration, and opportunity”.

First of all, knowledge is power and the foundation of innovation. Students should not only lay a solid foundation, but also broaden their horizons and grasp the latest developments.

The second point is that sweat refers to being able to endure hardships. Any scientific research result comes from in-depth and meticulous hard work and hard work.

Third, there must be inspiration. Inspiration is the spark of thought, which is the product of knowledge, experience, thinking and pursuit.

The fourth is chance. Accidental things may bring us inspiration and opportunities. You must learn to look at problems with philosophical thinking, and find out the inevitability hidden behind it through the superficial phenomenon of chance. I believe that if you stick to these points, you can break through the obstacles and realize your dreams.

Classmates, China has entered a new era. You are young Chinese in the new era. You are shouldering the mission of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The future has given you the responsibility of strengthening and revitalizing agriculture. Accumulate and grow, and will not live up to the responsibility of the times.

——Excerpted from the speech at the opening ceremony of Hunan Agricultural University in 2019, entitled “Young People in the New Era who Do Practical Practice and Accumulate Accumulation”

Produced / Hunan Daily Changsha Branch New Hunan Changsha Channel

Planning / Cao Hui

Producer/Wang Wenlong Zhou Xiaolei Tengbin

Written in this issue / Cao Hui Ouyang Qian

Video Production / Fan Yuanzhi Li Mengyu

Editor / Feng Hao

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