(Question about things) Fan Peng: What kind of political expression is “people’s democracy in the whole process”?
China News ServiceBeijing, September 19, title: What kind of political expression is “people’s democracy in the whole process”?
Author Fan Peng Researcher, Institute of Political Science, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
In his speech at the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China, General Secretary Xi Jinping put forward an important exposition of “developing people’s democracy in the whole process”. What kind of political expression is people’s democracy in the whole process? Only by knowing this can we penetrate its major theoretical and practical significance, grasp the important clues to recognize and understand the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and the logic of promoting the development of China’s democratic politics, and then can we evaluate and measure the achievements of China’s democratic system construction.
The contemporary expression of the development practice of China’s democratic politics
From people’s democracy to socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics, and then to the whole process of people’s democracy, they are not separated from each other, but centered on a center, based on a system, along a path, consistent pursuit and continuous exploration of realizing the real “people are the masters of the country” , The process of continuous leap.
Since modern times, the Chinese people’s pursuit of democracy has been tortuous and arduous and magnificent. In the end, the Chinese Communist Party united and led the Chinese people to achieve national independence, national liberation, and people’s freedom, created great achievements in the new democratic revolution, and established the People’s Republic of China. The Chinese people can truly determine their own destiny, plan their own development, and pursue peace. Realize your own democracy.
More than 70 years since the founding of New China and more than 40 years of reform and opening up, the Communist Party of China has held high the great banner of people’s democracy, united and led the people of all ethnic groups across the country in unremitting struggle, established the fundamental political system and basic development framework of socialist democracy, and successfully opened up a society with Chinese characteristics. The road of socialist political development has formed a complete set of socialist democratic political systems with Chinese characteristics.
This system includes the general principle of “all power belongs to the people” stipulated in the Constitution. It not only embodies the Chinese characteristics and the nature of socialism, but also lays a solid political system foundation for the later pursuit of realizing people’s democracy in the whole process.
In the process of leading the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the Chinese Communists insisted on proceeding from the national conditions and reality. They not only grasped the long-formed cultural traditions and historical inheritance, but also paid attention to the long-term accumulated political principles and institutional experience, and cared about the reality of national development. Requirement and focus on solving practical problems, rationally borrowing from the achievements of other civilized political development, long-term practice and repeated exploration of the development of socialist democratic politics with Chinese characteristics, laying an important historical foundation for the development and maturity of people’s democracy throughout the process.
Since the socialism with Chinese characteristics entered the new era, we have continuously improved the socialist democratic system with Chinese characteristics, continuously developed socialist political civilization, effectively promoted the institutionalization, standardization and proceduralization of the development of socialist democracy, and continuously expanded the people-centered democratic politics Innovate roads and implementation methods, and strive to pursue a more extensive, true, and effective democratic system that conforms to the requirements of the times and reflects the aspirations of the people.
The whole process of people’s democracy is the product of continuous exploration in the above-mentioned historical stages. It is an important historical landmark for the construction of people’s democratic politics under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. It is also the practical achievement and wisdom of the development of socialist democratic politics with Chinese characteristics. It is a society with Chinese characteristics in the new era. A clear sign of the growing maturity of the democratic system.
The concrete expression of the essential characteristics of China’s democratic system
Adhere to the people-centered fundamental political system and the socialist democratic system with Chinese characteristics. In the practice of political life, it is necessary to constantly adapt to the needs of the times and accept the test of people’s feelings and actual effects, that is, to continuously promote the concreteness of the democratic system and the principle of democratic operation Practicalization.
The whole process of people’s democracy is the most intuitive form and the most real form of practice of the extensive, true and effective democratic system that the Chinese people explore and pursue. It has rich democratic connotations and a complete and concrete democratic practice system, which clearly expresses the operation of China’s democratic system. The structural characteristics and process characteristics of the This is significantly different from the democratic politics that the West has pursued since modern times, with the realization of the right to vote as its core.
Whether democracy is fully guaranteed depends on whether the people have the democratic right to continuously participate in daily political practice and real life. The whole process of people’s democracy is a democratic practice system that includes elections, consultations, decision-making, management, supervision and other rich connotations of rights and mutual integration. It runs through all fields of politics, economy, society, culture, and ecological construction, as well as national management. Throughout the process, the people have the right to participate and have the right to speak in all fields, and participate in the operation of state power.
Every year, China promulgates tens of thousands of legislations and policies closely related to the people, ranging from national legislation, medium to local regulations, and small grassroots micro-policies, all reflecting the characteristics of the whole process of China’s democratic politics. For example, during the online solicitation of opinions during the preparation of the “14th Five-Year Plan”, the broad masses of people actively participated, leaving more than 1 million messages, and relevant parties sorted out more than 1,000 suggestions.
Shanghai is the first place where General Secretary Xi Jinping put forward important expositions on the whole process of people’s democracy. In 2015, Hongqiao Street, Changning District, was developed into the first batch of grassroots legislative contact points established by the Legislative Work Committee of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. Over the past six years, a total of 25 primary-level legislative contact points of the Municipal People’s Congress Standing Committee have achieved full coverage of 16 districts in Shanghai. More than 6,500 legislative proposals have been submitted, and more than 530 have been adopted, reflecting the distinctive features and outstanding characteristics of “the whole process of people’s democracy”. efficacy.
The Self-plastic Expression of the Advantages of Chinese Democracy over Western Democracy
The world today is undergoing major changes unseen in a century. The chaos in the West and the rule of China have formed a strong contrast. The competition of institutions and political discourse, including democracy, has become the banner of the political development path of various countries and the foundation of political competition among countries. .
However, for a long time, China has focused on economic development, and more public opinion and theoretical focus have been on China’s market economy development path and development model. In response to the development and reform of the political field, it lacks a more proactive narrative awareness and narrative ability. In this context, political development issues, including core political values such as democracy, human rights, and freedom, are mainly externally narrated and evaluated by media and scholars in the Western world.
The whole process of people’s democracy is a symbolic change in the narrative of China’s political development and the country’s political image from “others” to “self-made.” The characteristics and advantages of ideological democracy over all kinds of Western-style democracy demonstrate the legitimacy and superiority of the Chinese-style democratic system.
In recent years, there have been frequent occurrences of democratic chaos in the West, severe political struggles and social tears have frequently occurred in some countries and regions, and political polarization and right-wing populism have even appeared. The whole process of people’s democracy can not only more effectively protect the people’s extensive and true rights, but also has a clear realistic orientation. It is more conducive to consolidating national governance capabilities and maintaining social development consensus, thereby promoting healthy economic and social development and maintaining long-term stability in the country.
The key factor to ensure the stability and long-term development of the people’s democracy in China is to uphold the leadership of the Communist Party of China. The leadership of the Chinese Communist Party has established a correct development direction and a clear development orientation for the healthy development of China’s democratic politics. China insists on starting from the actual needs of the people, respecting the real needs of the people, following the laws of social development, and constantly promoting the level of industrialization and modernization in China, and innovating the forms and channels for the realization of democracy . People’s democracy in the whole process also adheres to the combination of democracy and centralism, which not only gives full play to the polarities of all parties and the advantages of democratic participation, but also ensures that the country’s decision-making is correct and effective.
Cultural expression of Chinese style democratic political system
China’s pursuit of exploring the realization of people’s democracy in the whole process also has a profound historical impact on the development of world political civilization. As the world’s largest developing country, what kind of development concept and institutional model the Chinese people choose determines the lifestyle of one-fifth of the world’s population.
The whole process of people’s democracy respects the interests and demands of the majority of people, supports and encourages various forms of consultation throughout the whole process of democratic development, embodies China’s unique democratic values, and is a political civilization rooted in the land of China and reflecting China’s excellent traditional culture. Expression of form. Taking grassroots democratic participation as an example, consultation is an important form of implementing people’s democracy throughout the process. There is something to discuss, and everyone’s affairs are discussed by everyone. Finding the greatest common divisor of the will and requirements of the whole society is a value that the Chinese people use daily and unknowingly, with a deep historical accumulation and traditional cultural origins.
In today’s China, grass-roots democracy and deliberative democracy are flourishing. The main reason is that this democratic form of “consultation and negotiation” satisfies the actual needs of grassroots social governance. It is the embodiment of the people’s initiative and the product of grassroots governance innovations. Heartfelt support.
In addition to advocating and encouraging everyone to discuss matters, the whole process of people’s democracy adheres to the participation of individuals, families, collectives, and the country. It adheres to the coordinated development of democratic politics and economic society, and adheres to the compatibility of order and vitality, the rule of law and freedom, and overall planning. , Also shows distinctive Chinese cultural characteristics.
The exploration of people’s democracy in the whole process reflects China’s historical pursuit and conforms to the basic laws governing the political development of a country with a large multi-ethnic population. It not only leads the Chinese people to continue to move forward steadily and steadily on the road of national development, but also It will contribute unique Chinese wisdom and Chinese solutions to the development of world political civilization, and will have an important impact on the development of common values for all mankind. (over)
About the Author:
Fan Peng, Director of Contemporary Chinese Political Research Office, Institute of Political Science, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, researcher (professor), and doctoral supervisor. National “Propaganda of ideological and cultural young talents”. Director of the Chinese Political Society, Vice President and Secretary-General of the Youth Professional Committee of the Chinese Political Society, Director of the Chinese Administration Society, member of the National Hong Kong and Macau Research Association, member of the Hong Kong Basic Law and Macau Basic Law Research Association, and senior researcher of the CITIC Reform and Development Research Foundation.