Medical doctors reminded that influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are also health threats that cannot be ignored. (Data photo)
By Li Peixuan
The whole people are committed to increasing the coverage of the new crown vaccination, the time sequence has also entered the autumn and winter seasons, and the influenza vaccination season has also kicked off. Remind everyone that influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are also health threats that we cannot ignore.
Influenza (Influenza) is a disease caused by influenza virus, which is different from a cold. After influenza virus enters the human body through droplet transmission, mild cases cause fever, headache, fatigue, body aches and other symptoms. Mild symptoms usually last for 3-7 days. In severe cases, bacterial or viral pneumonia and encephalitis may even occur. And myocarditis, etc., cause life-threatening. Annual influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza and avoid serious complications. Herd immunity can also reduce the spread of influenza virus.
The new coronavirus, influenza virus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae have similar respiratory symptoms in the human body, and all of them can have symptoms such as cough, throat discomfort, fever, etc., and they may also enter severe illness and death. After being infected with influenza virus, secondary bacterial Streptococcus pneumoniae invasion, even meningitis, pericarditis and sepsis, etc. are increased, which is called “invasive pneumococcal disease infection”, which is the main cause of severe illness or death.
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Infecting influenza and new coronary pneumonia at the same time, the severity and mortality rate will be higher, and the successive infection of the two will also increase the rate of severe illness. Many studies have found that administering influenza vaccine can help reduce the risk of becoming severely ill after contracting new coronary pneumonia; further studies in the United States have also found that after administering Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine to contract new coronavirus, the severe disease and mortality rate have been significantly reduced3 Into the left and right. Under the prevention of the new crown epidemic, Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines (high-risk groups) and influenza vaccines are all recommended to be administered.
Which ethnic groups are recommended to consider Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine in addition to the new crown vaccine and influenza vaccine?
1. Over 65 years old
2. Under 5 years old
3. High-risk groups over the age of 18 (inclusive) but under 65
-Defect of spleen function or splenectomy
-Congenital or acquired immune insufficiency (including those with HIV infection)
-Artificial ear implanters
-Patients with chronic diseases, including: chronic kidney disease, chronic heart disease, chronic lung disease, diabetes, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, alcohol addicts, smokers, etc.
-Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid
-Patients with malignant tumors or organ transplants receiving immunosuppressive agents or radiotherapy
Precautions for vaccination against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae beforehand
1. Review the history of vaccination: People who are known to be allergic to the components of the vaccine, and those who have had serious adverse reactions in the past, should not be vaccinated, or go to the vaccine clinic to consult with a physician.
2. Those who have a fever or are suffering from an acute and moderately severe disease should wait until the condition is stable before vaccination.
After vaccinating influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines, pay attention to 3 time points and observe your physical condition:
For those who use antiplatelet, anticoagulant drugs, or abnormal blood coagulation, apply pressure at the injection site for at least 2 minutes after the injection, and observe whether there is still bleeding or hematoma.
To prevent immediate severe allergies, observe for 30 minutes after vaccination, and then leave the hospital if there are no symptoms.
About 1-2% may have a fever reaction, and the doctor should be informed that the vaccine has been vaccinated, as a reference for diagnosis.
If fever persists 48 hours after vaccination (ear temperature> 38.5 ℃), there may be another infection or other cause of fever.
For those who are at high risk of non-pneumococcal infection, it is recommended to administer the new crown vaccine and influenza vaccine this season. The two doses should be given at least 7 days apart
Based on the immune side effects that vary from person to person after the vaccine is administered, it is impossible to know exactly what the reaction will be. However, the adverse reactions of the two vaccines are transient and will disappear in about 7 days. The clinical guidelines suggest that the vaccine should be administered at intervals of 7 days in order to clarify the adverse effects of different vaccines.
For those at high risk of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, it is recommended to administer the new crown vaccine, influenza vaccine, and Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine this season
Please go to the Infectious Diseases Department, Thoracic Department or Vaccine Clinic to discuss the vaccination schedule with your doctor.
The outbreak of the new crown epidemic has encouraged all people to wear masks and wash their hands frequently, effectively reducing the spread of droplet viruses. In addition to the new crown vaccine, influenza viruses are extremely prone to mutations. Therefore, it is recommended that the public should be vaccinated once a year. People at high risk of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection should also be given the lung chain vaccine as soon as possible to build up the body’s protection.
(The author is the attending physician in the Family Medicine Department of Neihu Cathay Pacific Clinic)