The NASA has selected From missions, called DAVINCI+ and VERITAS, to study the world “habitable lost” from Venus. Each mission will receive a $ 500 million for its development and both are expected to be launched between 2028 and 2030.
For a long time it was thought that there was no life on Venus, due to its extremely high temperatures. But at the end of last year scientists studying the planet’s atmosphere announced the surprising (and somewhat controversial) discovery of phosphine. On Earth, this chemical is produced mainly by living organisms.
The news sparked renewed interest in Earth’s “twin”, prompting NASA to planning next-generation missions to take a closer look at the planetary environment of Venus, which could hint at living conditions.
Conditions for life
Since the space telescope Hubble revealed the large number of nearby galaxies, astronomers have become obsessed with finding exoplanets in other star systems, especially those that appear habitable.
But there are certain criteria for a planet to be considered habitable. It must have a suitable temperature, an atmospheric pressure similar to that of the Earth and available water.
In this sense, Venus It probably wouldn’t have attracted much attention if it were outside of our solar system. Its skies are filled with thick clouds of sulfuric acid (which is dangerous to humans), the earth is a desolate backdrop of extinct volcanoes, and 90% of the surface is covered in red-hot lava flows.
Despite this, NASA will search the planet environmental conditions that they can having harbored life in the past. In particular, any evidence that Venus may have had an ocean it would change all of our current models of the planet.
And, interestingly, conditions on Venus are much less harsh at a height of about 50 km above the surface. In fact, the pressure at this point is reduced so much that conditions are much more similar to those on Earth, with breathable air and pleasant temperatures.
If life (in the form of microbes) exists on Venus, probably wherever you are.
The DAVINCI + probe
The DAVINCI + mission (Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry, and Imaging) NASA has several scientific goals, related to:
-Origin and evolution of the atmosphere
Your goal is to understand the atmospheric origins of Venus, focusing on how it first formed, how it evolved, and how (and why) it is different from the atmospheres of Earth and Mars.
-Atmospheric composition and surface interaction
Is about understand the history of water on Venus and the chemical processes that take place in its lower atmosphere. An attempt will also be made to determine whether Venus ever had an ocean. Since life on Earth began in our oceans, this would be the starting point in any search for life.
This aspect of the mission will provide information on the geographically complex tile regions of Venus (which have a very deformed terrain), and will investigate their origins and their tectonic, volcanic and weathering history.
These findings could shed light on how Venus and Earth started in a similar way. and then they diverged in their evolution.
The DAVINCI + spacecraft, upon reaching Venus, will drop a spherical probe full of sensitive instruments through the planet’s atmosphere. During your descent, the probe will sample the air, constantly measuring the atmosphere as it falls and returning the measurements to the orbiting spacecraft.
The probe will carry a Mass spectrometer, which can measure the mass of different molecules in a sample. This will be used to detect any noble gases or other gases in Venus’s atmosphere.
In-flight sensors will also help measure the dynamics of the atmosphere., and a camera will take high-contrast images during the descent of the tube. Only four spacecraft have returned images of the surface of Venus, and the last such photo was taken in 1982.
For its part, the VERITAS mission (Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy) map surface features to determine the geological history of the planet and better understand why it developed so differently from Earth.
Historical geology provides important information about the ancients climate changes, the eruptions volcanic and earthquakes. These data can be used to anticipate the possible magnitude and frequency of future events.
The mission will also try to understand the internal geodynamics that shaped the planet. In other words, we can build an image of the movements of the continental plates of Venus and compare it with that of Earth.
Alongside DAVINCI+, VERITAS will take topographic images high-resolution image of the surface of Venus across the planet, mapping the surface features, including mountains and valleys.
At the same time, the instrument Venus Emissivity Mapper (VEM) aboard the orbiting spacecraft VERITAS will map surface gas emissions with such precision that it will be able to detect near-surface water vapor. Its sensors are so powerful that they will be able to see through thick clouds of sulfuric acid.
A key insight into conditions on Venus
The most exciting of these two missions is the orbit-surface probe. In the decade of 1980, four landers reached the surface of Venus, but they were only able to operate for two days due to the crushing pressure. The pressure there is 93 bars, which is the same as being 900 meters below sea level on Earth.
Then there is the lava. Many lava flows on Venus stretch for several hundred kilometers. And the mobility of this lava can be favored by the average temperature of the planet’s surface, of about 470°C.
For their part, volcanoes “shield”Of Venus have an impressive width of 700 km at the base, but only a few 5,5 km of average height. The largest shield volcano on Earth, Hawaii’s Mauna Loa is only 120 km wide at its base.
Information from DAVINCI + and VERITAS will provide crucial insight into not only how Venus formed, but how any rocky, living planet forms.. At best, this will provide us with valuable markers for the search for habitable worlds outside our solar system.
Note originally published in The Conversation