On International Women’s Day, what are the female diseases to be aware of by generation?

Every year on March 8th is International Women’s Day. Since it was officially designated by the United Nations in 1977 to improve women’s rights, Korea has officially designated it as a legal anniversary in 2018. Currently, she is paying attention to women’s healthy lives beyond the height of their passports.

Although women’s status has gradually increased and social activities have become more active, it is easy to neglect their own health as they often do childcare and housework at the same time. In order for women to lead a healthy life, Incheon Himchan General Hospital gynecologist Jeong Da-un, a gynecologist, provides advice on women’s diseases that should be taken care of by generation.

▲If children and adolescents are suspected of having ‘precocious puberty’, the cause of the disease should be identified and treated early.

According to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, the number of children and adolescents treated for precocious puberty increased from 28,251 in 2010 to 136,334 in 2020, a fivefold increase in 11 years. In general, precocious puberty is diagnosed when secondary sexual characteristics appear in girls younger than 8 years old and boys younger than 9 years old when puberty begins. First, when diagnosing precocious puberty, it is necessary to determine whether there is a causative disease such as a central nervous system tumor or an ovarian tumor, and if the causative disease is found as a result of the examination, it should be treated together.

The cause of precocious puberty is idiopathic in 80 to 90% of cases, but it is estimated that the family history and environmental hormones are related. In the case of puberty, a correlation was confirmed with body fat mass in childhood. It has been reported that children with a higher body mass index start developing breasts at an earlier age and have earlier menarche as well as secondary sexual characteristics. Therefore, childhood obesity not only has complications of obesity, but also accelerates puberty and affects growth and development.

In girls with precocious puberty, menarche may occur earlier, which may result in premature closure of the growth plate, which may lead to growth disorders. If a breast lump or pubic hair develops before the age of 8, you should suspect precocious puberty and visit a hospital for examination. If diagnosed with precocious puberty, sexual development can be suppressed through injection therapy that limits the secretion of sex hormones. Along with treatment, regular exercise and healthy eating habits should be followed to maintain an appropriate weight, and to minimize exposure to environmental hormones by refraining from using disposable containers.

▲The number of ‘cervical cancer’ among young people is soaring in 2030… Both men and women should get the vaccine

Cervical cancer is a female genital cancer that occurs in the cervix, the entrance to the uterus, and the incidence rate is increasing among young people. According to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, the number of cervical cancer patients increased by 8% in about five years from 57,164 in 2016 to 61,892 in 2020, and the number of patients in their 20s and 30s increased by about 22% from 14,572 to 17,806 during the same period. Fortunately, cervical cancer can be detected early with regular screening. However, there are no noticeable early symptoms, so regular check-ups are important. For women aged 20 to 70, cell testing is recommended every year, and free national health checkups are available every two years.

The main cause of cervical cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. More than 200 types of HPV have been identified so far. Of these, about 40 species are caused by sexual contact, and types 16, 18, 32, and 33 belong to the high-risk group. Cervical cancer is almost the only cancer that can be prevented with a vaccine because the cause is clear. Gardasil 9-valent vaccine prevents HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58 can Gardasil’s domestic vaccination recommendations are for females aged 9 to 45 years and males aged 9 to 26. Before starting a sexual life, the younger you are, the higher the antibody production, the more effective it is to be vaccinated early. HPV is transmitted through sexual contact, so it is recommended that men get the vaccine as well. In men, HPV can cause genital warts, oral cancer, and anal cancer, so the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommends HPV vaccination for men.

▲If you want to live a healthy old age, you need to manage ‘osteoporosis’ for the rest of your life from middle age.

There are certain things that no woman can avoid. That’s menopause As we age, the ovaries age, the female hormones decrease, and ovulation gradually stops, leading to menopause. Menopause transition period refers to the period until the last menstruation as the menstrual cycle becomes irregular. In general, the menopause transition starts at the average age of 46 and takes about 4-5 years. Menopause symptoms mainly appear during the transition to menopause and after menopause. During this time, bone density decreases rapidly. Bone composed of collagen, calcium, phosphorus, etc. maintains homeostasis by the bone replacement process in which old bone tissue is replaced with new bone tissue. During menopause, estrogen, which is involved in bone formation, decreases significantly, and the amount of bone replenished rather than destroyed increases the risk of osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis refers to a condition in which bone strength is weakened and fractures are highly likely. In severe cases, even a small impact such as coughing or falling can cause fractures. When a hip fracture occurs, there is a 15-20% chance of death within 1 year and a cumulative mortality rate of 60% within 8 years, which is why it is called the silent killer. In order to lead a healthy life after middle age, continuous management is required from the stage of osteopenia, just before osteoporosis. A standardized T-SCORE value of -1.0 or higher by comparing the bone density with the average of healthy young adults is normal, between -1.0 and -2.5 is osteopenia, and below -2.5 is osteoporosis. Patients with osteoporosis below -2.5 must be treated through insurance benefits, and osteopenia patients should also consider appropriate drug treatment if they are at risk of fracture or have already had a fracture. For women, it is recommended to get a bone density test before menopause, when the decrease in bone density is accelerated, and to prevent osteoporosis through treatment such as hormone therapy from the osteopenia stage. In addition, lifelong management such as vitamin D and calcium intake, which helps bone formation, maintenance of an appropriate weight, and strength training to help prevent fractures, should be done.

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