When it comes topancreatic cancer, many people will be nervous because the survival rate of patients tends to be low. In fact, many patients with pancreatic cancer begin to experience changes 2 to 3 years before they are diagnosed—as long as you pay attention to 2 signs, you may be able to discover them.
of all cancers pancreatic cancerlowest survival rate
Pancreatic cancer is sometimes called a “silent” disease because in its early stages symptoms are rarely noticed, and when they do occur, they are vague and easily overlooked. It is generally late when it is discovered.
According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year relative survival rate for patients with pancreatic cancer is only11%, ranking last among the 22 cancers counted.According to a clinical observation of 625 patients, the overall median survival time of pancreatic cancer was only9.3 months。
Pancreatic cancer is projected to account for only 3 percent of all cancers in the U.S. in 2022, but accounts for7%。
Every611 in 1 person may develop pancreatic cancer in their lifetime.
Why is pancreatic cancer fatal?
The pancreas is located in the upper abdomen of the body, near the back of the stomach, and is an important gland in the digestive system. It is responsible for secreting digestive juices that flow into the intestines to digest and break down food.
The pancreas also secretes and releases hormones, including insulin, into the bloodblood sugarmaintain a relatively stable state.
The reasons for the high mortality rate of pancreatic cancer are4 o’clock。
1. The pancreas is located deep in the abdomen in the retroperitoneum, so the lesion is not easy to be found.Many people feel abnormal because pancreatic cancer has spread and affected other areas.
2. Pancreatic cancer has the characteristics of early metastasis.
Pancreatic cancer can spread to nearby lymph nodes and the peritoneum, and cancer cells may also travel through the bloodstream to other parts of the body.When pancreatic cancer patients are first diagnosed with52%In people, the cancer has spread.
Although the 5-year relative survival rate for patients with pancreatic cancer that has not spread, can reach44%but these patients accounted for only 12% of all patients; the 5-year relative survival rate of people with pancreatic cancer spread was only3%. Even patients who undergo surgery have a high probability of developing metastases in the years after surgery.
3. Pancreatic cancer greatly weakens the patient’s physiquelimiting their ability to withstand treatment.
4. Pancreatic cancer is resistant to many therapies.
If pancreatic cancer is diagnosed early, the chances of survival are higher.An earlier study published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology suggested that even early6 monthsDiagnosis can also improve the chances of patients with pancreatic cancer to have the cancer removed surgically.
Pay attention to 2 signs to detect pancreatic cancer 3 years in advance
Researchers at the University of Oxford confirmed by analyzing large-scale medical data in the UK that there are23 symptoms, associated with the most common type of pancreatic cancer: yellowing of the skin, bleeding from the stomach or intestines, difficulty swallowing, diarrhea, change in bowel habits, vomiting, indigestion, abdominal mass, abdominal pain, weight loss, constipation, fatty stools, abdominal swelling , nausea, flatulence, heartburn, fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, itching, back pain, thirst, and dark urine. Although most symptoms are not specific to pancreatic cancer and may be caused by other benign conditions, patients with pancreatic cancer are more likely than patients with other diseases to experience some of these nonspecific symptoms in the year before diagnosis.
Not long ago, researchers at the University of Surrey and the University of Oxford collaborated to identify two pancreatic cancer-related diseases by analyzing data from 8,777 pancreatic cancer patients and comparing them with nearly 35,000 control groups. Changes in important body parameters—weight loss andblood sugarraised.
ResearchThe results showed that before the diagnosis of pancreatic cancertwo toThree years, these two symptoms may appear.
1. Weight loss
Specifically, two years before the patient was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, there may have been an obvious change in the body, that is, a sharp weight loss.
At the time of diagnosis, the average body mass index (BMI, which is the squared value of weight divided by height) of pancreatic cancer patients is only 25.7. The average BMI of the average person is 28.4, a difference of 3 units.
Further calculations found that if a person loses so much weight that the difference between their body mass index and the average person reaches 5 units, then his risk of developing pancreatic cancer will increase by 60%.
Therefore, if there is rapid weight loss and weight loss, you should be alert. This may be a symptom of pancreatic cancer.
2. Elevated blood sugar
If blood sugar rises, not only should you pay attention to whether you have itdiabetesBe more careful, whether it is cancer of the pancreas.
Compared with ordinary people, patients with pancreatic cancer have a higher level of glycated hemoglobin, that is, blood sugar, with an average of 55mmol/mol. The average blood sugar in the control group was only 48.5mmol/mol. The difference between the two is 6.5 units.
It is worth noting that the early warning signal of elevated blood sugar levels can be detected in the first three years of the patient’s diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.
If a person’s blood sugar rises by 10mmol/mol, his risk of pancreatic cancer increases by 40%.
The study also found that adiabetesPeople with high blood sugar were more likely to have an increased risk of pancreatic cancer than people with diabetes. People with diabetes who lose weight have a higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
Why Do Abnormal Weight and Blood Sugar Predict Pancreatic Cancer?
The exact cause of pancreatic cancer is unknown, but a number of risk factors are thought to be involved in the development of pancreatic cancer.
Among them, some factors such as family history and genetic genes are considered to be non-intervention risk factors for pancreatic cancer. There is also a more specific non-modifiable risk factor:blood type OPeople have the lowest risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
And a 2020 review of pancreatic cancer published in The LancetResearchIt is proposed that among the various carcinogenic factors of pancreatic cancer, the risk factors that can be controlled and intervened include: obesity, type 2 diabetes and tobacco use. Among them, smoking almost increases the risk of all cancers, which is already a consensus. (Editor’s Choice:50% of cancer is actually preventable?Stay away from these carcinogens and stay healthy）
to a large cohort of over 560,000 AmericansResearchIt shows that people who are overweight or obese are 15% to 53% more likely to develop pancreatic cancer than people who are of normal weight but suffer from pancreatic cancer.
FrenchResearchersAnalysis of surgically obtained human pancreatic tissue demonstrated that fatty infiltration leads to the development of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, a precursor to pancreatic cancer.
HaveResearchIt is proposed that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer.Compared with patients without diabetes, those who were recently diagnosed with diabetes had a nearly increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer7 times。
a multiracial cohortResearchIt also shows that patients with pancreatic cancer often have clinical manifestations of diabetes; and long-term diabetes will increase the risk of a person suffering from pancreatic cancer.
and alsoResearchersproposed that the hyperglycemia symptoms caused by obesity and insulin resistance may lead to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer because high levels of insulin in the blood can promote the proliferation of pancreatic acinar and ductal cells. In addition, inflammation caused by insulin resistance can also increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.
Published in the journal Cell Metabolism in 2019ResearchIt is proposed that a series of metabolic changes caused by high blood sugar will make pancreatic cells lack a certain raw material for synthesis and repair of DNA, which will lead to mutations in the KRAS gene in pancreatic cells, thereby inducing pancreatic cancer; and 90% of pancreatic cancers have this Gene mutation.
To prevent pancreatic cancer, pay attention to the following points
If you want to prevent pancreatic cancer, you should start by changing the controllable risk factors for pancreatic cancer.
One of the most important points is to eat more plant-based foods.
A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods reduces the risk of pancreatic cancer, while a diet rich in meat and animal products increases the risk.
Specifically, the intake of red meat and high-temperature processed meat products may induce pancreatic cancer. This is because such foods may contain advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which can accumulate in body tissues and accelerate oxidative stress and inflammation, which can lead to disease and cancer.
Many nutrients in fruits and vegetables, especially water-soluble vitamins and active substances, have antioxidant andanticancercharacteristics; while high dietary fiber intake was also associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Especially cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage contain isothiocyanates, which can help fight cancer.
People who ate more cruciferous vegetables had a lower risk of pancreatic cancer than those who ate less cruciferous vegetables22%。
In addition, in a randomized controlled study of nearly 50,000 American middle-aged and elderly womentestAmong them, a low-fat dietary intervention was shown to reduce the incidence of pancreatic cancer in overweight women by 29%.
Such a diet can also help reduce obesity. Obesity is not the only cancer that can cause pancreatic cancer.Keep your weight within the normal range and you can lose up to13 typesCancer Risk.
In addition, we must quit bad habits such as smoking and drinking.
Comparison of more than 530,000 EuropeansResearchIt has been confirmed that compared with never smokers, current smokers have a 72% increased risk of pancreatic cancer, and by avoiding exposure to tobacco, the occurrence of pancreatic cancer can be reduced by about 16%.
one itemmeta-analysisIt was found that the risk of pancreatic cancer increased by 15% among heavy drinkers, and the effect was most pronounced among male heavy drinkers and heavy alcohol drinkers.
In addition, excessive alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of chronic pancreatitis, which is also thought to potentially trigger pancreatic cancer.