Paris and Lille (North) will soon no longer have a monopoly on rent control. It should be extended, in the course of 2021, to several dozen municipalities across France, a majority of which are in Ile-de-France. Inter-municipal authorities have until November 23 to apply to the Ministry of Ecological Transition, on which Housing depends. The rent framework, provided for by the Elan law, limits the amount of rentals according to the location of the property, its type and its period of construction. A ceiling that can be exceeded via a “rent supplement”, justified by the owner by the “exceptional” nature of the property and which can then be contested by the tenant.
Already, large cities have sent their files in this direction. So, Bordeaux (Gironde) and several other towns in its agglomeration such as Begles have applied, just like Lyon (Rhône) and its neighboring town of Villeurbanne as well as Montpellier (Hérault).
“This is one of the first deliberations that we took after I took office,” explains Mickaël Delafosse (PS), elected in June as mayor of Montpellier. Rent prices have increased significantly, with landlords taking advantage of demand to sharply increase their rents. Montpellier is the fourth city in France with the highest rents! “
About twenty municipalities in Ile-de-France
In Ile-de-France, where they are also very high, at least three territories have requested their application, according to a count that we have made. From the end of 2018, in Seine-Saint-Denis, Est Ensemble voted to implement the rental framework in all of its municipalities (Bagnolet, Bobigny, Bondy, Le Pré-Saint-Gervais, Les Lilas, Montreuil, Noisy-le-Sec, Pantin and Romainville ). More recently, Plaine Commune, (Aubervilliers, La Courneuve, Epinay-sur-Seine, L’Ile-Saint-Denis, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, Saint-Denis, Saint-Ouen, Stains and Villetaneuse), did the same, as well as the Grand Orly Seine Bièvre (Arcueil, Chevilly-Larue, Choisy-le-Roi, Gentilly, Ivry-sur-Seine, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, Orly, Villejuif, Villeneuve-Saint-Georges and Vitry-sur-Seine) in the Val-de-Marne.
When will these municipalities be able to benefit from the device? Mystery. Probably in the course of 2021. ““ We would like it to be in place at the start of the next academic year, a period during which there is a lot of movement in rentals, ”explains Mickaël Delafosse. And to specify:
In the cabinet of Emmanuelle Wargon, the Minister of Housing, we do not move forward on any date: “At the end of the examination of the files, there will be for each candidate agglomeration a simple decree which fixes the perimeter then an order. prefectural annual to specify the terms of application ”, we explain.
While it can be strong politically, rent control has proved ineffective until today. A year after its entry into force in Paris, one in two advertisements did not respect it, according to a study by Better Agents, which noted, however, that it had “made it possible to slow the rise in rental prices”. In Lille, at the end of October, La Voix du Nord analyzed a hundred classified ads to find that 56% of them did not respect the limits.
At the National Housing Confederation (CNL), we nevertheless welcome the device and its interest. “On the other hand, it is incomplete: what is lacking are the means of control, deplores Eddie Jacquemart, the president of the union. At one point there are rules, you need a gendarme. As the device is today, it is the tenant who must seize the Departmental Conciliation Commission and then the courts to enforce the framework. A tedious process that few are encumbered … In one year, only 75 appeals had been registered in Paris. “In hypertensive areas, once the tenant has gone through the obstacle course to find an apartment, honestly, it’s very complicated,” adds Eddie Jacquemart, who pleads for the authorities to seize the illegal ads directly.
The rent regulation is only today at the experimental stage and runs until 23 November 2023. Until then, the government will look at the effectiveness of the measure and the advisability of to keep or not. For the municipalities which missed the boat, it will be necessary to wait until then.