◇ Diagnosed with decreased gait speed and grip strength
Low muscle mass does not make a diagnosis of sarcopenia. In patients with reduced muscle mass due to BIA (InBody, etc.), the diagnosis of sarcopenia is when the walking speed falls to 1.0 m/s from a 6-meter walking in 2019 Asian standards and the hand grip strength decreases to less than 28 kg for men and 18 kg for women. do. However, it is difficult for ordinary people to recognize sarcopenia because it is not easy to accurately measure hand grip strength, walking speed, and muscle mass.
Professor Yoo Seung-don said, “Recently, it is necessary to first classify the calf circumference or sarcopenia self-diagnosis questionnaire (SARC-F), and try to get up from a chair 5 times (more than 12 seconds) with hand grip strength and then accurately diagnose sarcopenia in hospitals. It is recommended,” he explained.
◇ When calves are reduced, weight loss, depression, or falls occur, a professional diagnosis is required.
Sarcopenia usually occurs due to aging or diseases such as stroke, osteoporosis, and dementia. In the case of aging, more attention is required because the patient cannot recognize it and it worsens. In the elderly with chronic diseases such as heart failure, chronic lung disease, diabetes, and kidney disease, physical function declines, weight loss, depression, poor concentration, or frequent falls should be suspected. In particular, if the calf circumference is less than 34 cm for men and less than 33 cm for women, and if there is an abnormality in the sarcopenia self-diagnosis questionnaire (SARC-F), it is recommended to undergo a sarcopenia evaluation at a hospital.
◇ Sarcopenia increases the risk of falls, malnutrition, and depression
The reason senile sarcopenia is dangerous is that sarcopenia does not simply mean a decrease in muscle mass. This is because it can be an important factor in the development of disease. In fact, the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength and the occurrence of physical disability is continuous, and as the skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength are low, the occurrence of disability may increase, and as a result, the risk of death may increase. Professor Yoo Seung-don explained, “We should think of sarcopenia itself as a disease concept that can prevent various diseases, rather than simply accepting it as aging.”
◇ “Rehabilitation for resistance muscle improvement, etc.” Treatment and prevention must be combined with professional exercise therapy and nutritional management
As for physical activity, resistance strength improvement and rehabilitation training are known to increase muscle mass. It is good to train the thigh muscles, calf muscles, back muscles, and abdominal muscles mainly with large muscles. However, since incorrect exercise has a side effect of reducing the amount of activity by causing musculoskeletal disease or pain, it is recommended that the elderly or musculoskeletal disorders increase muscle mass through appropriate exercise prescription.
Nutrition is also an important factor, but the effectiveness of nutritional management without exercise is unclear. Protein intake, vitamin D, unsaturated fatty acids, and antioxidant nutritional supplements are helpful. To prevent sarcopenia, nutritional status, exercise amount, and activity amount should be optimized for muscle building. Protein needs sufficient protein intake, such as black beans, meat, fish, tofu, and eggs. For general adults, it is recommended to consume 0.9 g of protein per 1 kg of body weight per day.