[EpochTimesJune92021](Epoch Times reporter Xu Yiyang comprehensive report) Recently, the CCP’s official media from the central to the locals suddenly collectively published an old article 43 years ago.Practice is the only criterion for testing truth“. From June 4th to 7th, the Chinese Communist Party’s official media continued to publish articles, high-profile publicizing the author Hu Fuming and the publication of the article.However, all reports did not mention the key person who reviewed and finalized the article that year.Hu Yaobangname.
《Practice is the only criterion for testing truth“” was published on the front page of the Communist Party media “Guangming Daily” on May 11, 1978. After that, it sparked a big discussion on the standard of truth throughout China. The CCP claimed that this discussion broke through “Two ordinaryThe severe restraint of “” has far-reaching significance in the history of the CCP, and has served as an important theoretical basis for the CCP’s subsequent ruling line.
At that time, as the chairman of the Chinese Communist PartyHua GuofengThe leading party insisted on implementing “Two ordinary“Theory; on the other side,Deng Xiaoping、Hu YaobangWhen people want to promote reform, they use the theory that “practice is the only criterion for testing truth” to break through the defense line of consciousness. At last,Hua GuofengLose power,Deng XiaopingOne side gains power.
It is the 32nd anniversary of the June 4th Incident in 1989, and this unusual move by the Chinese Communist Party’s official media has attracted widespread attention. Some experts on China said that the CCP had previously promoted Mao Zedong’s theory and showed signs of restoration of the Cultural Revolution. The move by the official media may be that some liberals or opposition parties within the CCP are counterattacking, indicating an unprecedented split within the CCP.
CCP official media collectively published old articles without mentioning Hu Yaobang
Recently, the official media of the CCP has published the old article “Practice is the Only Standard for Testing Truth”. As early as April 8, the website of the Ankang Municipal Government in Shaanxi Province reprinted a brief report on this article by the Chinese Communist Party’s official media People’s Daily Online.
On April 22, the Chinese Communist Party’s official media Chinanews.com published an interview with Hu Fuming, the author of “Practice is the Only Standard for Testing Truth”, on Hu Fuming’s eyes on the CCP’s “changes and unchanged” in the past few decades.
On May 11, the website of the Central Radio and Television of the Communist Party of China (Yangguang.com) posted a photo of the front page of this article published in Guangming Daily 43 years ago, and introduced the 43-year-old Hu Fuming in the report. The deputy director of the Department of Philosophy of Nanjing University, and the correspondence between him and the editor at that time and the process of publication of the article.
On the same day, the Communist Party Member Network, which is in charge of the Organization Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, also published the same article as the Yangguang Network. The article also inserted a photo of Hu Fuming, a photo of him with Wang Qianghua, the editor of Guangming Daily, and a revised draft of his article. The photo and the inscription photo of Deng Xiaoping’s 1988 “Practice is the only criterion for testing truth.”
On June 4, the state media Xinhuanet also published an interview with Hu Fuming. This article was later reprinted by “Yunnan Daily” on June 5, and on two different channels of CCTV on June 5 and June 7.
On June 5, CCTV’s “News Broadcast” also reported on him under the theme of “Hu Fuming: Real Knowledge from Practice”.
However, the CCP official media did not mention the name of the former CCP General Secretary Hu Yaobang in all these articles or reports. However, Hu Yaobang was the key figure in the review and finalization of the article “Practice is the Only Standard for Testing Truth”; his death was the fuse that triggered the 1989 June Fourth Incident.
The background of the old literature era: denying Mao thought and anti-Cultural Revolution
In October 1976, the “Gang of Four” fell, and the “Cultural Revolution” that had lasted for ten years ended. At that time, all Chinese people were changing their minds and waiting to be rejuvenated. The CCP was faced with difficulties in ideological, political, and organizational fields. People learned from the pain and began to reflect on the history of the ten-year catastrophe and the CCP’s founding. As for where China will go, people hope to find an answer.
At that time, Hua Guofeng assumed the highest leadership position of the Communist Party of China, and he was the successor appointed by Mao Zedong. On October 26, 1976, when Hua Guofeng listened to a report from the Central Propaganda Department, he said that he should criticize the “Gang of Four” together with “Criticism of Deng (Deng Xiaoping).” The “Two Whats” theory was proposed on the previous page.
On February 7, 1977, the CCP’s “two newspapers and one magazine,” which represented the political climate at the time, published editorials in the People’s Daily, Liberation Army Daily, and Red Flag magazines, officially proposing “two whats”: everything made by Mao Zedong Decisions are firmly upheld; all Mao Zedong’s instructions are always followed unswervingly.
An article on the Chinese Communist Party’s official media People’s Online stated that according to the “two ordinarys”, the “Cultural Revolution” cannot be denied because it was initiated, led, and directed by Mao Zedong himself; moreover, there are some people who advocate the “two ordinarys.” He was the leader who worked at the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China at that time, with great authority and decision-making power. The article stated that “this is the reason why the society was in serious hesitation or even stagnation at the time.”
“Two Whats” was firmly opposed by Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yun and others. On April 10, 1977, Deng Xiaoping, who had not resumed his post, criticized the “two ordinarys” in a letter to Hua Guofeng, Ye Jianying and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, and repeatedly raised the issue of insisting on “seeking truth from facts.”
After being forwarded by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, this letter played a certain role in reducing the influence of the “two normals” within the Communist Party, and it also made Deng Xiaoping’s comeback a foregone conclusion.
In December 1977, the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China compiled materials on the history of the Communist Party. Hu Yaobang, who was in charge of the work of the Party School at the time, put forward two compilation requirements, one of which was “practice is the criterion for testing truth.” Intermediate and senior cadres studying at the Communist Party School of the Communist Party of China discussed this, including Yang Xiguang, the former editor-in-chief of Guangming Daily.
In the same year, when Wang Qianghua, head of the special issue group of Guangming Daily and Philosophy, was on a business trip to Nanjing for a meeting, he invited Hu Fuming, deputy director of the Department of Philosophy of Nanjing University, to write an article for the special issue of Philosophy. Hu Fuming completed two manuscripts, one of which is “Practice is the Standard for Testing Truth”.
In April 1978, Yang Xiguang decided to make further revisions and publish it after reviewing the large sample of the article. After repeated revisions by five people including Yang Xiguang and Hu Fuming, the article was revised by Wu Jiang, the deputy education director of the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, and it was finalized on April 27 and sent by Wu Jiang to Hu Yaobang for review.
On May 10 of the same year, the internal journal “Theoretical Trends” of the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China published an article “Practice is the Only Standard for Testing Truth” which was reviewed and finalized by Hu Yaobang. On May 11, this article was published in Guangming Daily in the name of a special commentator, and it was forwarded by Xinhua News Agency that same day. On May 12, China’s Communist Party newspapers such as the People’s Daily and the People’s Liberation Army Daily reprinted it at the same time, and the newspapers of most provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China also successively reprinted it.
This article quickly aroused a large discussion on the standard of truth across the country, and had a profound impact on the development of Chinese society.
Deng Xiaoping seized power and Hua Guofeng was ousted
From July 16 to 24, 1977, at the Third Plenary Session of the Tenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Deng Xiaoping was restored to his post. These positions include: member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee, member of the Standing Committee, Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, Vice Premier of the State Council, and Chief of the General Staff of the Chinese Communist Liberation Army.
At this time, the CCP’s power was still Hua Guofeng. Although the “two ordinarys” was challenged, it was still the mainstream trend of thought at the time. Deng Xiaoping’s prestige within the CCP was not strong enough to replace China.
After returning to the highest level of the Chinese Communist Party, as the American writer Harrison Evans Salisbury said: “Deng has used all the strategies and tactics in Chinese political life to fight, fight, talk and argue fiercely. In power.”
In December 1978, the CCP convened the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee. “Two whatevers” was completely rejected at this meeting. The CCP re-established the theory of “emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts.” This meeting actually formed the CPC Central Committee leadership group with Deng Xiaoping as the core.
Deng Xiaoping also quickly took down the senior officials of the “Ordinary faction” who had surrounded Hua Guofeng one by one. For example, Wang Dongxing, vice chairman of the CPC Central Committee, Ji Dengkui, Wu De, and Chen Xilian, members of the Political Bureau of the CPC, and Sun Jian, Chen Yonggui, and Wu Guixian, vice premiers of the State Council of the CPC, were all removed from their posts. Hua soon became a polished commander.
At the Third Session of the Fifth National People’s Congress of the Communist Party of China in August and September 1980, Hua Guofeng was forced to resign as Premier of the State Council of the Communist Party of China and was replaced by Zhao Ziyang. At the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in June 1981, Hua was forced to resign as Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and Chairman of the Central Military Commission. Hu Yaobang took over as Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and Deng Xiaoping took over as Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Half a year ago, in November 1980, the Politburo of the Communist Party of China held nine meetings to discuss the issue of Hua Guofeng and criticize China. Hua was forced to conduct a review, admit his mistakes and submit a request for resignation. By the 12th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 1982, China had only one nominal position as a member of the Central Committee.
The CCP turned left in a deep crisis, Wang Huning was the initiator
In the past two years, the CCP, which has been in a serious crisis, has increasingly turned to the left, showing a tendency to return to the Cultural Revolution.
The Epoch Times columnist Wang Youqun recently published an article “Zhongnanhai faces stormy waves again“Said that in the international arena, the CCP is facing three huge pressures: one is to trace the source of the CCP virus (new crown virus), to hold accountable, and to claim compensation; the second pressure is the allegations of genocide; the third pressure is the “wolf war”. “Diplomacy” failed.
The pressure within the CCP has also reached a critical point. Professor Qiu Shiyi of the Department of Political Science at Tunghai University in Taiwan said in an exclusive interview with The Epoch Times that China’s GDP growth has slowed down, supply chains have been cut off, high-tech industries have been blocked by the United States, and the economy has been suppressed. This has led to the imminent maintenance of stability within the CCP. Unsustainable. In particular, President Xi Jinping of the Communist Party of China is facing difficulties such as whether he can survive the 20th National Congress of 2022 and greet the next term smoothly. Various internal problems have made the anti-Xi wing within the Communist Party ready to move.
Wang Youqun also stated in the article that the collective leadership of the CCP has become individual centralization; the separation of party and government and separation of government and enterprise have become the unity of the party and government, and the unity of government and enterprise; vigorously develop private enterprises and become the country’s advance and the people’s retreat; The limited freedom of speech has become a total prohibition of dissent or opposition; opening to the outside world has become foreign investment, the withdrawal of foreign companies, and the trade war with the United States; Hong Kong’s “one country, two systems” has become “one country, one system” and so on.
Wang Youqun said that Wang Huning, a member of the Politburo Standing Committee in charge of ideology, played a key role in this.
Wang Huning, known as the “Three Dynasties Emperor” of the CCP, was a pen that Jiang Zemin and Zeng Qinghong appreciated, promoted, and reused.
After Xi Jinping became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party in November 2012, Wang was very low-key and tried his best to cater to Xi’s preferences, helping Xi to package the so-called “Xi thought” and gain Xi’s trust. By the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2017, “Xi Thought” was written into the Party Constitution of the Communist Party of China, and Wang became a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China and the director of the Communist Party’s ideology.
After that, Wang Huning used his power to control the CCP’s ideology and propaganda machinery to extol Xi’s merits. He was “low-level red” for a while and “high-level black” for a while, constantly digging holes for Xi.
Why would Wang Huning dig a hole for Xi? Wang Youqun said, only because Wang Huning’s real backstage bosses are Jiang Zemin and Zeng Qinghong. In the five years before Xi came to power, he was fighting corruption and fighting tigers, and most of the most serious corrupt elements at the highest level of the Chinese Communist Party’s political and military forces were promoted and used by Jiang and Zeng. Since then, Jiang and Zeng have forged indissoluble grudges with Xi.
2021 is the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China. As the chief of the CCP’s ideology, one of the most important things that Wang Huning did was to lead the rewriting of a history of the CCP.
This year, all parts of the mainland studied the latest version of the “A Brief History of the Communist Party of China” in a high-profile manner, in which major changes were made in the Cultural Revolution: the content of the Cultural Revolution was no longer an independent chapter, and the cause and course of the Cultural Revolution were revised. In addition, the content of Mao Zedong’s “serious mistakes” disappeared during the Cultural Revolution.
Chen Pokong, a political commentator in the United States, said: “The so-called Xi Jinping thought is actually Wang Huning’s thought. Xi Jinping’s extreme left is largely derived from Wang Huning’s extreme left. In fact, this ideological member of the Politburo Standing Committee is the brain of the CCP today. And the source of ultra-leftism.”
The CCP’s “left turn” is also difficult to obtain social consensus. “Contemporary China Review” editor-in-chief Rong Wei believes that even if Xi Jinping turns to the left to establish personal authority, it will be difficult to achieve. On the one hand, it is difficult to get support from the party; on the other hand, the generation born in the 50s who have experienced the Cultural Revolution are also firmly opposed to returning to the Cultural Revolution.
Rong Wei said: “If he wants to’turn left,’ there is no consensus in the party. Recently Wen Jiabao published his letter, which can illustrate a problem. It shows that there are a large number of insightful people in the party and they do not agree with him. The so-called “turn to the left.” After the 50s, they also went through the Cultural Revolution. A large number of these people are still alive. It can be said that they are the current backbone of China. These people firmly disagree with returning to the Cultural Revolution.”
Expert: An unprecedented division within the CCP
Shi Shan, an Epoch Times columnist and senior media person, pointed out that the CCP’s official media collective propaganda article “Practice is the Only Standard for Testing Truth” shows that the CCP’s propaganda mouth or the group of people in the party who rely more on liberals are now fighting back. Because some time ago, the CCP’s propaganda touted Mao Zedong and the restoration of the Cultural Revolution appeared. It turned to the left very sharply. This was actually a counterattack against this.
Shi Shan said: “This is a very important sign within the Communist Party of China, indicating a big problem-the core of the Central Propaganda Department must now be replaced. That is to say, Wang Huning is estimated to have lost power. This has been spread for a long time. From these signs, I guess it’s true.”
Ji Da, an expert on China in the United States, also told The Epoch Times that this phenomenon shows that the CCP’s internal division has been unprecedented.
Ji Da said that the Chinese Communist Party’s official media put forward “practice is the only criterion for testing truth” during the June Fourth Movement this year. This is extremely unusual for China’s political trends. It is obviously an extreme leftist approach. Opposition is an opposition to the authorities.
“This remark is at least dissatisfied with the reality and extremely dissatisfied with the status quo in China.” Ji Da said, “This dissatisfaction is even released on the party media such as the Xinhua News Agency of the authorities, indicating that the struggle within the party has been very fierce. It is the division within the CCP that has reached a fever pitch.”
Hu Yaobang’s death triggered the “June 4th” incident
Hu Yaobang is known for his open-mindedness within the Communist Party of China. In 1982, Hu Yaobang was appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, leading the reform process in China in the 1980s.
In early December 1986, students at the University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei, Anhui Province, launched a large-scale demonstration against corruption by the Communist Party. Within a month, the student movement expanded to universities in Beijing, Shanghai, Wuhan and other places, covering 28 universities in 18 provinces and cities in the mainland, and nearly 1 million students participated, shaking the country.
The students and people who participated in the protests put forward the slogans of “demanding democracy, demanding freedom, demanding human rights, opposing officials, and anti-corruption” and demanding that the CCP carry out anti-corruption and democratization reforms.
This large-scale demonstration made the CCP very panic. Deng Xiaoping believed that “this was mainly caused by Hu Yaobang’s mistakes.”
In January 1987, Deng Xiaoping and other CCP leaders forced Hu Yaobang to resign and step down on charges of “opposing the inadequate liberalization of the bourgeoisie.” After Hu Yaobang was forced to step down, Zhao Ziyang, Premier of the State Council of the Communist Party of China, served as the acting general secretary of the Communist Party of China.
At the Politburo meeting on April 8, 1989, Hu Yaobang suffered a heart attack and died on April 15 a week later at the age of 74.
Hu Yaobang’s sudden death triggered large-scale mourning activities among the people. The mourning for Hu Yaobang on Tiananmen Square quickly evolved into the largest democratic movement in Chinese history. On June 4, 1989, the pro-democracy movement in Tiananmen Square was brutally suppressed by the CCP army, shocking China and foreign countries. It was called the June 4th Massacre in history.
Due to the sensitivity of the June Fourth Movement, the Beijing authorities were once taboo to mention Hu Yaobang’s name.
During the student democracy movement in 1989, Zhao Ziyang, then the general secretary of the Communist Party of China, was dismissed in June of the same year because he sympathized with the student movement and opposed Deng Xiaoping’s decision to suppress force by force. He was then placed under house arrest for 15 years until his death on January 17, 2005.
Editor in charge: Lian Shuhua#