October 29 marks the World Stroke Day ( ACV), with the objective of sensitize people About this medical emergency caused by sudden loss of blood flow to the brain.
In Argentina there are about 60,000 new cases of ACV by year, being this the first cause of disability and the third of death. It is estimated that 1 in 3 people who suffer from it have serious sequelae, that require special care for the rest of their lives. Prevention is based on control of risk factors. But it is also important to know identify pre-episode symptoms to act quickly and thus reduce the sequelae.
There are two types of ACV, the ischemic and the hemorrhagic. The first of these is the most common and occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain and causes a stroke.
Hemorrhagic is caused when a blood vessel in part of the brain breaks. This causes a hemorrhage in the brain that damages the cells of this, killing them. In just minutes, either case causes neurons to weaken or die, because nerve cells cannot function without oxygen. About 2 million neurons are lost every minute the brain goes without oxygen, and for every hour the brain ages 3.6 years.
The high blood pressure is one of the main risk factors, since it is present in almost the 80% of patients who suffer a stroke in Argentina. Furthermore, 22% of those who have a ACV are diabetic
He danger increases between 50% and 70% in smokers, and the impact is greater in women. Other risk factors are excessive alcohol consumption, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle and stress. The vast majority of ACV They are linked to these pathologies, which are possible to avoid and control.
Specialists indicate that the surprise appearance any of the following symptoms requires an urgent medical consultation: a sudden alteration of the balance to walk or coordination of movements; a sudden loss of vision or double vision; confusion speaking or understanding; feeling in the body a weak side, asleep or paralyzed in the face, arm and / or leg and a very intense headache.
He early recognition of these symptoms and prompt seeking medical attention will increase the chances of survive the episode and reduce the subsequent aftermath.
There is a time window during which they can be implemented two treatments to avoid sequelae. Between 3 and 4.5 hours after the first symptoms appear, a clot-dissolving drug that blocks a cerebral artery. After 6 to 8 hours after the start of the ACV I know can introduce a thrombus extracting stent device what “uncover” the occluded artery and restores normal blood circulation through the brain.
Patients who have had symptoms for more than 4 hours and have very large clots may require mechanical thrombectomy; a minimally invasive procedure used to remove clots when an ischemic-type stroke occurs.
The steps to follow to help someone who suffered a ACV They are: putting the person to bed so that they do not fall, taking care that it is on one of their sides, calling the emergency services quickly, not administering any medication and taking note of the start time of the symptoms.