The lander of the Soviet space mission Venera-9 made a soft landing on the surface of Venus on October 22, 1975, transmitting the first images of its surface.
For the first time in the atmosphere of the planet Venus at a pressure 90 times higher than on Earth and a temperature of 485 degrees Celsius, a unique image of the surface of Venus was obtained at the landing site. The spacecraft was able to transmit information for 53 minutes before succumbing to the enormous pressure and heat, Roscosmos reports.
For the first time, panoramic television images of another planet were broadcast. In the panoramas formed by broadcast television images, bedrock outcrops and split rocks were seen, which may be the result of shifts in the crust and serve as confirmation of tectonic activity on Venus.
The descent vehicle measured the density, pressure, temperature of the atmosphere, the amount of water vapor, nephelometric measurements of cloud particles, measurements of illumination in different parts of the spectrum. In addition to a gamma spectrometer, a radiation density meter was used to measure soil characteristics.
Venera 9 measured the illumination on the surface; These measurements showed that 5 to 10% of solar energy reaches the planet’s surface in the form of radiation scattered by clouds. It was also possible to obtain television images of the cloud layer, the distribution of the temperature along the upper limit of the clouds, the spectra of the planet’s night brightness, carry out studies of the hydrogen corona, multiple radio exposures of the atmosphere and ionosphere, and measurement of magnetic fields and near-planetary plasma.
The detection of thunderstorms and lightning in the planet’s cloud layer attracted much attention. The data from the optical measurements showed that the energetic characteristics of the Venusian ray are 25 times higher than the parameters of the Earth’s ray.