The secrets of the mummy of King Amenhotep the First remained hidden under the scrolls and the funeral face mask until they were recently revealed in the scientific study published today, December 28, 2021 in the Frontiers Journal of Medicine by Dr. Zahi Hawass, the famous Egyptologist and former Minister of Antiquities, and Dr. Sahar Selim, Professor of Radiology at the Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University .
Dr. Sahar Selim and Dr. Zahi Hawass advanced x-ray technology from computerized tomography and advanced computer programs to untie the coils from the mummy of Amenhotep the First in a safe digital manner and without the need to touch the mummy. The Egyptian study revealed for the first time about the face of the pharaoh, his age and health condition, in addition to many secrets of mummification and reburial of the mummy.
The mummy of King Amenhotep I, the funerary mask, is the icon of the majestic royal mummies procession to be transferred from the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir to the Museum of Civilization in Fustat in early April of this year.
King Amenhotep I is the son of King Ahmose, the conqueror of the Hyksos, who took the throne of Egypt after his father and ruled the country for twenty-one years (from 1525 to 1504 BC in the 18th dynasty). The mummy of King Amenhotep I was found in 1881 in the cache of the Royal Bahri Monastery in Luxor, Where the priests of the twenty-first dynasty reburied and hid the mummies of many kings and princes to protect them from tomb robbers.
After their transfer to Cairo, all the royal mummies were unwrapped between 1881 and 1896, except for the mummy of King Amenhotep I.
It is the only royal mummy that has not been unwrapped in the modern era in order to preserve the beauty of the mummy covered with a funerary mask and wreaths of colorful flowers. The face of the owner of this mummy and the information about him remained trapped in the scrolls and behind the royal mask until the scientific study that was recently published in the prestigious scientific journal Frontiers in Medicine by Dr. Zahi Hawass, the famous archaeologist with Dr. Sahar Selim, professor of radiology at the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University.
Where the two Egyptian scientists examined the mummy of King Amenhotep I using a computerized tomography (CT) machine located in the garden of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Where the two Egyptian scientists used modern techniques of CT scans to remove the scrolls from the mummy of King Amenhotep I, by default, safe by computer programs and without affecting the mummy. This technique preserves the mummy intact without touching, unlike the old method of unwinding with actual suspicion, which used to expose it to damage.
Dr. Zahi Hawass explained that this study succeeded for the first time in more than three thousand years to remove the scrolls by computer from the face of King Amenhotep I, who turned out to be very similar to his father, King Ahmose I, which is preserved in the Luxor Museum. The study also accurately determined the age of King Amenhotep I at the time of death and his ability to be 35 years.
The study also predicted the good health of the king, and no diseases or injuries to the mummy appeared to indicate the cause of death. The study revealed exciting information about the distinctive embalming method of King Amenhotep I, as it became clear that the position of the crossed forearms on the body of the mummy of kings (which is called the Osiris position) began with the mummy of King Amenhotep I. This Osiris position was not seen in those who preceded King Al-Munthotib I, and continued after him in the kings of the modern kingdom.
And Dr. Sahar Selim indicated that the study proved that the brain was still present in the skull of King Amenhotep I. The brain was not removed during the mummification process, unlike most of the kings of the modern kingdom such as Tutankhamun and Ramses II and others, where the brain was removed and embalming materials and resins were placed inside skull. The accurate three-dimensional radiographs in the study revealed the presence of 30 amulet inside the mummy and between its coils, as well as the presence of a belt under the back of the king’s mummy consisting of 34 gold beads.
The study carried out by the pure Egyptian team also revealed the precise technique of the ancient Egyptians in making the mummy’s funeral mask and placing precious stones on it. The study revealed, for the first time, the secrets of the treatment of the royal mummies by the priests of the 21st dynasty to re-burial them in the two royal caches in the Valley of the Kings and Deir el-Bahari.
The study proved the great care given by the priests of the 21st Dynasty in re-burying the mummy of King Amenhotep I, preserving the golden ornaments and placing many amulets inside the mummy, which restores confidence in the good intentions of the project to re-bury the royal mummies to preserve them, contrary to the allegations that were raised that the goal was to steal the ornaments. And the valuables from the mummies of ancient kings for re-use of the kings of the 21st dynasty.
It is worth mentioning that Dr. Zahi Hawass and Dr. Sahar Selim used a CT scan to examine forty royal mummies from the New Kingdom in the Royal Mummies Project of the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities, which began in 2005 and continues until now. One of the important results of this project is the disclosure of the secrets of the killing of King Ramses III in the conspiracy of the harem and the killing of King Seqenen Ra in the Battle of Egypt’s Silk from the Hyksos invaders, which indicates that modern archeology in the hands of Egyptian experts can rewrite history.
The mummy of King Amenhotep I
Detection was done by CT scan
The mummy of King Amenhotep I with a CT scan
The mummy of King Amenhotep I
Dr.. Zahi Hawass and Dr. Selim charm