Understanding the Causes of Cancer: Unraveling the Mystery of Random Mutations

2023-11-23 23:31:00

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When someone who leads a healthy life is suddenly diagnosed with cancer, it’s not only shocking, but it raises profound questions: Why me? This happens often, even in people who don’t smoke, eat healthy, exercise regularly, and have no family history of cancer. Zeng Jinyuan, director of Yuanding Clinic, mentioned this issue in his book “Precision Medicine: Early Prevention of Cancer, Solving Gene Myths and Prescribing the Right Medicine” (published by The Times). He cited the “random mutation carcinogenesis” theory of Johns Hopkins University scientist Bert Woakes, which has brought psychological comfort to countless cancer patients. Woakes emphasized that even if the external environment is perfect, random genetic mutations may still occur. This is a biological phenomenon that we cannot fully control. It is forbidden to create mirror websites on Chinese websites.

Cancer is said to be caused by bad luck

“Random mutation carcinogenesis” means that cancer is caused by genetic mutations, and mutations occur due to “random errors.” To put it simply, you get cancer because of bad luck (The bad luck of cancer). Over the years, a large amount of scientific evidence has pointed out that cancer is caused by genetic mutations. These mutations cause cells to lose control and form tumors. Mutations are errors in DNA coding. If the DNA sequence is compared to a series of words, then mutations are like typos in an article.

Three incorrect codes reveal the origin of cancer

Bert Walkers used the metaphor of a “typing error” to illustrate the types of mutations. If the typist makes a typo because he is too tired, then we can classify the cause of the error as “environmental factors”; if there is no problem with the typist but a defect of the typewriter itself, then we can call the typing error caused by “inherited factors.” ” problem; if there is no problem with the typist and the typewriter, but you still make typos, then it is a “random error.” Speaking more academically, the meanings of these three are as follows:

DNA coding errors 1. “Innate inheritance” mutations are almost inherited from parents

Only a very small number of “congenital mutations” appear after fertilization. There are more than 50 hereditary cancers in total. The most famous one is Angelina Jolie’s hereditary breast cancer.

DNA coding error 2. Carcinogens in “environmental factors” come into contact with body cells

Damage DNA so that the resulting DNA sequence is incorrect. For example, cigarettes contain more than 60 carcinogenic chemicals that can damage the DNA of our cells and cause mutations. Since smoking directly exposes the lungs to harmful environments, it is very easy to understand that smoking causes lung cancer.

DNA coding errors 3. Mutations caused by “random errors” are errors that occasionally occur during the routine replication process of DNA.

Scientific research has found that during the growth process of normal healthy cells, there will be an average of three mutations in each replication, and most of these mutations occur randomly. Scientists at Hopkins University in the United States have discovered that the incidence of cancer is positively correlated with random mutations. This study uses mathematical models to calculate big data on 17 types of cancer among 4.8 billion people (distributed in 69 countries on six continents), so it is very worthy of our reference.

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Unraveling the Mystery of Cancer Cells: Random Mutations and Cancer “A Few Are Inherited, Most Are Accidental”

The more mutations a cell has, the more likely it is that it will change from a normal cell to a cancer cell. The question is where do so many mutations come from? Scientists at Hopkins University in the United States published new data in March 2018. They believe that about 5% of cancers are caused by genetic mutations, and 29% of cancers are caused by environmental factors. Or caused by lifestyle, and about 66% of cancers are caused by random mutations. Professor Bert Wokstein’s research team estimates that about two-thirds of cancer cell mutations originate from “random errors.” Cancers that fall into the category of “random mutational carcinogenesis” include brain tumors, head and neck cancer, thyroid cancer, esophageal cancer, bone cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, ovarian cancer, testicular cancer, and lung cancer in non-smokers. Among them, brain tumors and prostate cancer are the most common, with more than 95% caused by random mutations.

(Excerpt from this article: “Precision Medicine: Early Prevention of Cancer, Solving Gene Myths and Prescribing the Right Medicine” published by The Times)

Editor-in-Chief: Chuxin Source: Times Publishing

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